Visit this site to learn more about what happens during an asthma attack. What are the three changes that occur inside the airways during an asthma attack? 2. Watch this video to learn more about lung volumes and spirometers. Explain how spirometry test results can be used to diagnose respiratory diseases or determine the effectiveness of disease treatment. 3. Watch this video to see the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Why is oxygenated blood bright red, whereas deoxygenated blood tends to be more of a purple color? 36. Describe the three regions of the pharynx and their functions. 37. If a person sustains an injury to the epiglottis, what would be the physiological result? 38. Compare and contrast the conducting and respiratory zones. 39. Compare and contrast the right and left lungs. 40. Why are the pleurae not damaged during normal breathing? 41. Describe what is meant by the term “lung compliance.” 42. Outline the steps involved in quiet breathing. 43. What is respiratory rate and how is it controlled? 44. Compare and contrast Dalton’s law and Henry’s law. 45. A smoker develops damage to several alveoli that then can no longer function. How does this affect gas exchange? 46. Compare and contrast adult hemoglobin and fetal hemoglobin. 47. Describe the relationship between the partial pressure of oxygen and the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin. 48. Describe three ways in which carbon dioxide can be transported. 49. Describe the neural factors involved in increasing ventilation during exercise. 50. What is the major mechanism that results in acclimatization? 51. During what timeframe does a fetus have enough mature structures to breathe on its own if born prematurely? Describe the other structures that develop during this phase. 52. Describe fetal breathing movements and their purpose. 1. By clicking on this link, you can watch a short video of what happens to the food you eat as it passes from your mouth to your intestine. Along the way, note how the food changes consistency and form. How does this change in consistency facilitate your gaining nutrients from food? 2. Visit this site for an overview of digestion of food in different regions of the digestive tract. Note the route of non-fat nutrients from the small intestine to their release as nutrients to the body. 3. Watch this animation to see how swallowing is a complex process that involves the nervous system to coordinate the actions of upper respiratory and digestive activities. During which stage of swallowing is there a risk of food entering respiratory pathways and how is this risk blocked? 4. Watch this animation that depicts the structure of the stomach and how this structure functions in the initiation of protein digestion. This view of the stomach shows the characteristic rugae. What is the function of these rugae? 5. Watch this animation that depicts the structure of the small intestine, and, in particular, the villi. Epithelial cells continue the digestion and absorption of nutrients and transport these nutrients to the lymphatic and circulatory systems. In the small intestine, the products of food digestion are absorbed by different structures in the villi. Which structure absorbs and transports fats? 6. By watching this animation, you will see that for the various food groups—proteins, fats, and carbohydrates—digestion begins in different parts of the digestion system, though all end in the same place. Of the three major food classes (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins), which is digested in the mouth, the stomach, and the small intestine? 7. Watch this video to see the structure of the liver and how this structure supports the functions of the liver, including the processing of nutrients, toxins, and wastes. At rest, about 1500 mL of blood per minute flow through the liver. What percentage of this blood flow comes from the hepatic portal system? 33. Explain how the enteric nervous system supports the digestive system. What might occur that could result in the autonomic nervous system having a negative impact on digestion? 34. What layer of the alimentary canal tissue is capable of helping to protect the body against disease, and through what mechanism? 35. Offer a theory to explain why segmentation occurs and peristalsis slows in the small intestine. 36. It has been several hours since you last ate. Walking past a bakery, you catch a whiff of freshly baked bread. What type of reflex is triggered, and what is the result? 37. The composition of saliva varies from gland to gland. Discuss how saliva produced by the parotid gland differs in action from saliva produced by the sublingual gland. 38. During a hockey game, the puck hits a player in the mouth, knocking out all eight of his most anterior teeth. Which teeth did the player lose and how does this loss affect food ingestion? 39. What prevents swallowed food from entering the airways? 40. Explain the mechanism responsible for gastroesophageal reflux. 41. Describe the three processes involved in the esophageal phase of deglutition. 42. Explain how the stomach is protected from self-digestion and why this is necessary. 43. Describe unique anatomical features that enable the stomach to perform digestive functions. 44. Explain how nutrients absorbed in the small intestine pass into the general circulation. 45. Why is it important that chyme from the stomach is delivered to the small intestine slowly and in small amounts? 46. Describe three of the differences between the walls of the large and small intestines. 47. Why does the pancreas secrete some enzymes in their inactive forms, and where are these enzymes activated? 48. Describe the location of hepatocytes in the liver and how this arrangement enhances their function. 49. Explain the role of bile salts and lecithin in the emulsification of lipids (fats). 50. How is vitamin B12 absorbed? 30. Describe how metabolism can be altered. 31. Describe how Addison’s disease can be treated. 32. Explain how glucose is metabolized to yield ATP. 33. Insulin is released when food is ingested and stimulates the uptake of glucose into the cell. Discuss the mechanism cells employ to create a concentration gradient to ensure continual uptake of glucose from the bloodstream. 34. Discuss how carbohydrates can be stored as fat. 35. If a diabetic’s breath smells like alcohol, what could this mean? 36. Amino acids are not stored in the body. Describe how excess amino acids are processed in the cell. 37. Release of trypsin and chymotrypsin in their active form can result in the digestion of the pancreas or small intestine itself. What mechanism does the body employ to prevent its self-destruction? 38. In type II diabetes, insulin is produced but is nonfunctional. These patients are described as “starving in a sea of plenty,” because their blood glucose levels are high, but none of the glucose is transported into the cells. Describe how this leads to malnutrition. 39. Ketone bodies are used as an alternative source of fuel during starvation. Describe how ketones are synthesized. 40. How does vasoconstriction help increase the core temperature of the body? 41. How can the ingestion of food increase the body temperature? 42. Weight loss and weight gain are complex processes. What are some of the main factors that influence weight gain in people? 43. Some low-fat or non-fat foods contain a large amount of sugar to replace the fat content of the food. Discuss how this leads to increased fat in the body (and weight gain) even though the item is non-fat. 31. What is suggested by the presence of white blood cells found in the urine? 32. Both diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus produce large urine volumes, but how would other characteristics of the urine differ between the two diseases? 33. Why are females more likely to contract bladder infections than males? 34. Describe how forceful urination is accomplished. 35. What anatomical structures provide protection to the kidney? 36. How does the renal portal system differ from the hypothalamo–hypophyseal and digestive portal systems? 37. Name the structures found in the renal hilum. 38. Which structures make up the renal corpuscle? 39. What are the major structures comprising the filtration membrane? 40. Give the formula for net filtration pressure. 41. Name at least five symptoms of kidney failure. 42. Which vessels and what part of the nephron are involved in countercurrent multiplication? 43. Give the approximate osmolarity of fluid in the proximal convoluted tubule, deepest part of the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting ducts. 44. Explain what happens to Na+ concentration in the nephron when GFR increases. 45. If you want the kidney to excrete more Na+ in the urine, what do you want the blood flow to do? 46. What organs produce which hormones or enzymes in the renin–angiotensin system? 47. PTH affects absorption and reabsorption of what? 48. Why is ADH also called vasopressin? 49. How can glucose be a diuretic? 50. How does lack of protein in the blood cause edema? 51. Which three electrolytes are most closely regulated by the kidney? 1. Watch this video to learn more about body fluids, fluid compartments, and electrolytes. When blood volume decreases due to sweating, from what source is water taken in by the blood? 2. Watch this video to see an explanation of the dynamics of fluid in the body’s compartments. What happens in tissues when capillary blood pressure is less than osmotic pressure? 3. Read this article for an explanation of the effect of seawater on humans. What effect does drinking seawater have on the body? 4. Watch this video to see a demonstration of the effect altitude has on blood pH. What effect does high altitude have on blood pH, and why? 31. Plasma contains more sodium than chloride. How can this be if individual ions of sodium and chloride exactly balance each other out, and plasma is electrically neutral? 32. How is fluid moved from compartment to compartment? 33. Describe the effect of ADH on renal collecting tubules. 34. Why is it important for the amount of water intake to equal the amount of water output? 35. Explain how the CO2 generated by cells and exhaled in the lungs is carried as bicarbonate in the blood. 36. How can one have an imbalance in a substance, but not actually have elevated or deficient levels of that substance in the body? 37. Describe the conservation of bicarbonate ions in the renal system. 38. Describe the control of blood carbonic acid levels through the respiratory system. 39. Case Study: Bob is a 64-year-old male admitted to the emergency room for asthma. His laboratory results are as follows: pH 7.31, pCO2 higher than normal, and total HCO3– also higher than normal. Classify his acid-base balance as acidosis or alkalosis, and as metabolic or respiratory. Is there evidence of compensation? Propose the mechanism by which asthma contributed to the lab results seen. 40. Case Study: Kim is a 38-year-old women admitted to the hospital for bulimia. Her laboratory results are as follows: pH 7.48, pCO2 in the normal range, and total HCO3– higher than normal. Classify her acid-base balance as acidosis or alkalosis, and as metabolic or respiratory. Is there evidence of compensation? Propose the mechanism by which bulimia contributed to the lab results seen. 1. Watch this video to learn about vasectomy. As described in this video, a vasectomy is a procedure in which a small section of the ductus (vas) deferens is removed from the scrotum. This interrupts the path taken by sperm through the ductus deferens. If sperm do not exit through the vas, either because the man has had a vasectomy or has not ejaculated, in what region of the testis do they remain? 2. Watch this video to explore the structures of the male reproductive system and the path of sperm that starts in the testes and ends as the sperm leave the penis through the urethra. Where are sperm deposited after they leave the ejaculatory duct? 3. Watch this video to observe ovulation and its initiation in response to the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland. What specialized structures help guide the oocyte from the ovary into the uterine tube? 4. Watch this series of videos to look at the movement of the oocyte through the ovary. The cilia in the uterine tube promote movement of the oocyte. What would likely occur if the cilia were paralyzed at the time of ovulation? 5. A baby’s gender is determined at conception, and the different genitalia of male and female fetuses develop from the same tissues in the embryo. View this animation that compares the development of structures of the female and male reproductive systems in a growing fetus. Where are the testes located for most of gestational time? 20. Briefly explain why mature gametes carry only one set of chromosomes. 21. What special features are evident in sperm cells but not in somatic cells, and how do these specializations function? 22. What do each of the three male accessory glands contribute to the semen? 23. Describe how penile erection occurs. 24. While anabolic steroids (synthetic testosterone) bulk up muscles, they can also affect testosterone production in the testis. Using what you know about negative feedback, describe what would happen to testosterone production in the testis if a male takes large amounts of synthetic testosterone. 25. Follow the path of ejaculated sperm from the vagina to the oocyte. Include all structures of the female reproductive tract that the sperm must swim through to reach the egg. 26. Identify some differences between meiosis in men and women. 27. Explain the hormonal regulation of the phases of the menstrual cycle. 28. Endometriosis is a disorder in which endometrial cells implant and proliferate outside of the uterus—in the uterine tubes, on the ovaries, or even in the pelvic cavity. Offer a theory as to why endometriosis increases a woman’s risk of infertility. 29. Identify the changes in sensitivity that occur in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads as a boy or girl approaches puberty. Explain how these changes lead to the increases of sex steroid hormone secretions that drive many pubertal changes. 30. Explain how the internal female and male reproductive structures develop from two different duct systems. 31. Explain what would occur during fetal development to an XY individual with a mutation causing a nonfunctional SRY gene. 1. View this time-lapse movie of a conceptus starting at day 3. What is the first structure you see? At what point in the movie does the blastocoel first appear? What event occurs at the end of the movie? 2. Visit this site for a summary of the stages of pregnancy, as experienced by the mother, and view the stages of development of the fetus throughout gestation. At what point in fetal development can a regular heartbeat be detected? 31. Darcy and Raul are having difficulty conceiving a child. Darcy ovulates every 28 days, and Raul’s sperm count is normal. If we could observe Raul’s sperm about an hour after ejaculation, however, we’d see that they appear to be moving only sluggishly. When Raul’s sperm eventually encounter Darcy’s oocyte, they appear to be incapable of generating an adequate acrosomal reaction. Which process has probably gone wrong? 32. Sherrise is a sexually active college student. On Saturday night, she has unprotected sex with her boyfriend. On Tuesday morning, she experiences the twinge of mid-cycle pain that she typically feels when she is ovulating. This makes Sherrise extremely anxious that she might soon learn she is pregnant. Is Sherrise’s concern valid? Why or why not? 33. Approximately 3 weeks after her last menstrual period, a sexually active woman experiences a brief episode of abdominopelvic cramping and minor bleeding. What might be the explanation? 34. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine recommends that all women who might become pregnant consume at least 400 µg/day of folate from supplements or fortified foods. Why? 35. What is the physiological benefit of incorporating shunts into the fetal circulatory system? 36. Why would a premature infant require supplemental oxygen? 37. Devin is 35 weeks pregnant with her first child when she arrives at the birthing unit reporting that she believes she is in labor. She states that she has been experiencing diffuse, mild contractions for the past few hours. Examination reveals, however, that the plug of mucus blocking her cervix is intact and her cervix has not yet begun to dilate. She is advised to return home. Why? 38. Janine is 41 weeks pregnant with her first child when she arrives at the birthing unit reporting that she believes she has been in labor “for days” but that “it’s just not going anywhere.” During the clinical exam, she experiences a few mild contractions, each lasting about 15–20 seconds; however, her cervix is found to be only 2 cm dilated, and the amniotic sac is intact. Janine is admitted to the birthing unit and an IV infusion of pitocin is started. Why? 39. Describe how the newborn’s first breath alters the circulatory pattern. 40. Newborns are at much higher risk for dehydration than adults. Why? 41. Describe the transit of breast milk from lactocytes to nipple pores. 42. A woman who stopped breastfeeding suddenly is experiencing breast engorgement and leakage, just like she did in the first few weeks of breastfeeding. Why? 43. Explain why it was essential that Mendel perform his crosses using a large sample size? 44. How can a female carrier of an X-linked recessive disorder have a daughter who is affected?
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