Submit Lab 7: Genetics
Answer each of the following questions in a complete and thoughtful way. Refer to specific data and give examples in the answers. The point value for each question appears next to the question.
Laboratory Exercise Questions
~~1. Distinguish between the terms gene and allele. (1 point)
~~2. Give an example of one genetic trait (gene) and two different alleles (allele phenotypes) for that gene. (3 points)
~~3. Compare and contrast the terms phenotype and genotype. (4 points)
~~4. List the allele combinations (gamete possibilities) that can be formed by an individual with the following genotype: AABB (1 point)
~~5. List the different allele combinations (gamete possibilities) that can be formed by an individual with the following genotype: AaBb. (4 points)
~~6. Given: P = purple flowers and p = white flowers and P is dominant over p.
~~7. Mendel’s laws:
~~8. A horticulturist has a purple plant and a white plant. The horticulturist knows that purple is dominant over white. When they are bred, all of the resulting offspring are purple. What is the most likely genotype of the parent or original purple plant? (2 points)
~~9. The horticulturist runs a test cross with an offspring (F1 generation) purple plant from Question 8. The phenotypic frequencies of the resulting offspring are 50% white and 50% purple. What is the true genotype of this offspring (F1 generation) purple plant? (2 points)
~~10. What is the probability of a cross resulting in purple offspring when two heterozygous purple pea plants (e.g. Pp x Pp) are bred? What is/are the genotype(s) for purple offspring resulting from this cross? (4 points)
~~11. Compare the real-world ratios calculated in Exercises 5 and 6 (coin toss activity) to Mendel’s ratios. Were they close? Pose a possible explanation for why the ratios may not be exactly the same. (4 points)
~~12. Refer to the data on the corn kernel color ratio from Part II of the lab. Note that big P is the dominant allele for purple coloring and small p is the recessive allele for yellow. Big S is the dominant allele for smooth texture and small s is the recessive allele for wrinkled texture.
~~13. Recall from the background information that purple kernels are dominant and yellow kernels are recessive. The Corn Cob 2 was the result of crossing two heterozygous ears of corn (Pp x Pp). This is represented by the Punnett square below. Complete the Punnett square by writing the correct letters that correspond to each number indicated in the table. Report the predicted offspring genotypes below. (4 points)
~~14. Once the Punnett square for Question 13 is complete, calculate the ratio of purple and yellow kernels. Recall that purple (P) is dominant to yellow (p).
~~15. Recall from the background information that purple kernels (P) are dominant and yellow kernels (p) are recessive. Also recall that smooth kernels (S) are dominant and wrinkled kernels (s) are recessive. Corn Cob 3 was the result of crossing a male ear of corn with the following genotype: PpSs, with a female ear of corn with the same genotype: PpSs. This is represented by the Punnett square, below. Complete the Punnett square by writing the correct letters that correspond to each number indicated in the table (for example, PPSS or ppss). (8 points)
~~16. Once the Punnett square for Question 15 is complete, calculate the ratio of corn kernel varieties (recall that if the dominant trait is present, it will be expressed).
~~17. What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for kernel color and kernel texture for a dihybrid cross between PpSs x ppss? (4 points)
~~18. Using the results from the Punnett Square in Question 15, answer the following question: In a population of 800 corn kernels, how many will have smooth kernel texture? (2 points)
~~19. In a flower garden, a horticulturist is growing purple and white pansies. The horticulturist notices that a new pansy has sprouted. When it finally flowers, the pansy is lavender. Explain how this happened. (4 points)
~~20. With a botanist’s help, an individual decides to cross the lavender pansy with the white pansy. Will this result in any purple pansies? Explain. (4 points)
~~21. State an industrial concern/importance for knowing the genetic makeup of an organism. Explain why it is important in your example. (5 points)
~~22. How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to genetics be useful to you, or how can you apply this knowledge to your everyday life as a non-scientist? The application will be graded according to the rubric below. (20 points)
Key components of critical thinking and application include the following:
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